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Construction and immunological evaluation of recombinant Newcastle disease virus vaccines expressing highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus GP3/GP5 proteins in pigs

Zhang, He, Nan, Fulong, Li, Zhuoxin, Zhao, Guanyu, Xie, Changzhan, Ha, Zhuo, Zhang, Jinyong, Han, Jicheng, Xiao, Pengpeng, Zhuang, Xinyu, Wang, Wei, Ge, Jinying, Tian, Mingyao, Lu, Huijun, Bu, Zhigao, Jin, Ningyi
Veterinary microbiology 2019 v.239 pp. 108490
Avian orthoavulavirus 1, Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, cell-mediated immunity, chick embryos, genetic stability, industry, interferon-gamma, mice, neutralizing antibodies, pathogenicity, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome, poultry, proteins, reverse genetics, swine, tissues, vaccination, vaccines, viral load
Highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (HP-PRRS) poses a significant threat to the pig industry, for which vaccination is considered to be an effective means of prevention and control. Here, we developed two recombinant Newcastle disease virus (NDV) LaSota-vectored PRRS candidate vaccines, rLaSota-GP5 and rLaSota-GP3-GP5, using reverse genetic techniques. The two recombinant viruses exhibited a high degree of genetic stability after 10 successive generations in chicken embryos. There was no significant difference in pathogenicity compared with the rLaSota parent strain in poultry, mice and pigs. The recombinant viruses could not be detected in the feeding environment of immunized pigs, but could be detected in the organs and tissues of pigs for no more than 10 days after immunization. Importantly, in contrast to rLaSota-GP5, rLaSota-GP3-GP5 elicited both significant humoral and cellular immune responses in pigs. In particular, the neutralizing antibody titer in the rLaSota-GP3-GP5 group was 1.51 times significantly higher than that of the commercial vaccine group at 42 days post-immunization. At the same time, there was significant difference in the level of IFN-γ between the rLaSota-GP3-GP5 group and the commercial vaccine group. Furthermore, the viral load in the organs and tissues of rLaSota-GP3-GP5-immunized pigs was substantially lower than that of unimmunized pigs after being challenged with HP-PRRS virus GD strain. These results suggest that rLaSota-GP3-GP5 is a safe and promising candidate vaccine, and there is potential for further development of a recombinant virus vaccine for PRRS using NDV.