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Genotyping of Mycobacterium tuberculosis spreading in Hanoi, Vietnam using conventional and whole genome sequencing methods

Maeda, Shinji, Hijikata, Minako, Hang, Nguyen Thi Le, Thuong, Pham Huu, Huan, Hoang Van, Hoang, Nguyen Phuong, Hung, Nguyen Van, Cuong, Vu Cao, Miyabayashi, Akiko, Seto, Shintaro, Keicho, Naoto
Infection, genetics, and evolution 2020 v.78 pp. 104107
Japan, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, computer simulation, evolution, genome, genotyping, infection, loci, molecular epidemiology, polymerase chain reaction, tuberculosis, China, Vietnam
Hanoi is the capital of Vietnam, one of the 30 countries with a high tuberculosis (TB) burden. Fundamental data on the molecular epidemiology of the disease is required for future TB management.To identify lineages and genotypes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), conventional genotyping data from clinical isolates of the Hanoi area was compared with whole genome sequencing (WGS) analysis from 332 of 470 samples. It was obtained from lineage-specific single nucleotide variants (SNVs), large sequence polymorphisms, spoligotyping, and variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) analysis using mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit (MIRU) and Japan anti-tuberculosis association (JATA) locus sets. This information was directly compared with results obtained from WGS. Mini-satellite repeat unit variants were identified using BLAST search against concatenated short read sequences, the RepUnitTyping tool.WGS analysis revealed that the Mtb strains tested are diverse and classified into lineage (L) 1, 2 and 4 (24.7, 57.2 and 18.1% respectively). The majority of the L2 strains were further divided into ancient and modern Beijing genotypes, and most of the L1 group were EAI4_VNM strains. Although conventional PCR-based genotyping results were mostly consistent with information obtained through WGS analysis, in-depth analysis identified aberrant deletions and spacers that may cause discordance. JATA-VNTR sets, including hypervariable loci, separated large Beijing genotypic clusters generated by MIRU15 into smaller groups. The distribution of repeat unit variants observed within 33 VNTR loci showed clear variation depending on the three lineages. WGS-based pairwise-SNV differences within VNTR-defined genotypic clusters were greater in L1 than in L2 and L4 (P = .001).Direct comparisons between results of PCR-based genotyping and in silico analysis of WGS data would bridge a gap between classical and modern technologies during this transition period, and provide further information on Mtb genotypes in specific geographical areas.