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Construction of a Lactobacillus plantarum Strain Expressing the Capsid Protein of Porcine Circovirus Type 2d (PCV2d) as an Oral Vaccine

Tseng, Yi-Han, Hsieh, Cheng-Chu, Kuo, Tsun-Yung, Liu, Je-Ruei, Hsu, Ting-Yu, Hsieh, Shu-Chen
Indian journal of microbiology 2019 v.59 no.4 pp. 490-499
Lactobacillus plantarum, Porcine circovirus, Porcine circovirus-2, Western blotting, cell walls, coat proteins, death, edible vaccines, financial economics, flow cytometry, genetic vectors, genotype, mice, mucosal immunity, neutralization, oral vaccination, pork industry, swine, swine diseases, virulent strains, viruses
Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is a pathogenic virus that causes high rates of porcine death, resulting in severe economic losses to the swine industry. In recent years, the prevalence of PCV2d genotype infection in pigs has increased, but most commercially available vaccines were developed against the PCV2a strain and do not ensure complete protection from PCV2d. Here, we first constructed an expression vector for the antigenic ORF2-encoded capsid protein of PCV2d (pLp3050-His₆-tag-capsid). We then utilized Lactobacillus plantarum to express the protein at mucosal sites in orally vaccinated mice. After transducing L. plantarum with pLp3050-His₆-tag-capsid, the expressed protein could be found in cell wall and cell-free supernatant fractions by Western blotting. Using flow cytometry, we found that L. plantarum cells with surface-displayed capsid protein increased with time after SppIP induction. Finally, mice that were orally immunized 18 times with capsid-expressing L. plantarum showed increased levels of capsid-specific sIgA and virus neutralizing activity at mucosal sites, suggesting mucosal immunity had been stimulated by the vaccine. Overall, our findings demonstrate the feasibility and utility of a PCV2d-based vaccine, which may be of great value in porcine agriculture.