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Recent advances in chlorophyll biosynthesis and breakdown in higher plants
- Eckhardt, U., Grimm, B., Hortensteiner, S.
- Plant molecular biology 2004 v.56 no.1 pp. 1-14
- plants, Arabidopsis thaliana, chlorophyll, biosynthesis, metabolism, degradation, biochemical pathways
- Chlorophyll (Chl) has unique and essential roles in photosynthetic light-harvesting and energy transduction, but its biosynthesis, accumulation and degradation is also associated with chloroplast development, photomorphogenesis and chloroplast-nuclear signaling. Biochemical analyses of the enzymatic steps paved the way to the identification of their encoding genes. Thus, important progress has been made in the recent elucidation of almost all genes involved in Chl biosynthesis and breakdown. In addition, analysis of mutants mainly in Arabidopsis, genetically engineered plants and the application of photo-reactive herbicides contributed to the genetic and regulatory characterization of the formation and breakdown of Chl. This review highlights recent progress in Chl metabolism indicating highly regulated pathways from the synthesis of precursors to Chl and its degradation to intermediates, which are not longer photochemically active.