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A glance over doxorubicin based-nanotherapeutics: From proof-of-concept studies to solutions in the market

Gonçalves, Mara, Mignani, Serge, Rodrigues, João, Tomás, Helena
Journal of controlled release 2020 v.317 pp. 347-374
adverse effects, case studies, doxorubicin, drug therapy, markets, nanomaterials, pharmacokinetics
Cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide and, as such, efforts are being done to find new chemotherapeutic drugs or, alternatively, novel approaches for the delivery of old ones. In this scope, when used as vehicles for drugs, nanomaterials may potentially maximize the efficacy of the treatment and reduce its side effects, for example by a change in drug's pharmacokinetics, cell targeting and/or specific stimuli-responsiveness. This is the case of doxorubicin (DOX) that presents a broad spectrum of activity and is one of the most widely used chemotherapeutic drugs as first-line treatment. Indeed, DOX is a very interesting example of a drug for which several nanosized delivery systems have been developed over the years. While it is true that some of these systems are already in the market, it is also true that research on this subject remains very active and that there is a continuing search for new solutions. In this sense, this review takes the example of doxorubicin, not so much with the focus on the drug itself, but rather as a case study around which very diverse and imaginative nanotechnology approaches have emerged.