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Analysis of 1-Deoxysphingoid Bases and Their N-Acyl Metabolites and Exploration of Their Occurrence in Some Food Materials

Wan, Junliang, Li, Jian, Bandyopadhyay, Sibali, Kelly, Samuel L., Xiang, Yang, Zhang, Jin, Merrill, Alfred H., Duan, Jingjing
Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 2019 v.67 no.46 pp. 12953-12961
acyl coenzyme A, alanine, antineoplastic agents, ceramides, diet, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, foods, glycine (amino acid), human diseases, human health, mammals, metabolites, moieties, quantitative analysis, reversed-phase liquid chromatography, serine, serine C-palmitoyltransferase, sphinganine
Most common sphingolipids are comprised of “typical” sphingoid bases (sphinganine, sphingosine, and structurally related compounds) and are produced via the condensation of l-serine with a fatty acyl-CoA by serine palmitoyltransferase. Some organisms, including mammals, also produce “atypical” sphingoid bases that lack a 1-hydroxyl group as a result of the utilization of l-alanine or glycine instead of l-serine, resulting in the formation of 1-deoxy- or 1-desoxymethylsphingoid bases, respectively. Elevated production of “atypical” sphingolipids has been associated with human disease, but 1-deoxysphingoid bases have also been found to have potential as anticancer compounds, hence, the importance of knowing more about the occurrence of these compounds in food. Most of the “typical” and “atypical” sphingoid bases are found as the N-acyl metabolites (e.g., ceramides and 1-deoxyceramides) in mammals, but this has not been uniformly assessed in previous studies nor determined in consumed food. Therefore, we developed a method for the quantitative analysis of “typical” and “atypical” sphingoid bases and their N-acyl derivatives by reverse-phase liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. On the basis of these analyses, there was considerable variability in the amounts and molecular subspecies of atypical sphingoid bases and their N-acyl metabolites found in different edible sources. These findings demonstrate that a broader assessment of the types of sphingolipids in foods is needed because some diets might contain sufficient amounts of atypical as well as typical sphingolipids that could have beneficial or possibly deleterious effects on human health.