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Fatal hemoptysis after bronchoscopic biopsy in a dog

Greenway, Clayton, Rozanski, Elizabeth, Johnson, Kelsey, Cornejo, Lilian, Abelson, Amanda, Robinson, Nicholas
Journal of veterinary internal medicine 2019 v.33 no.6 pp. 2718-2724
arteries, biopsy, bronchoscopy, cardiac arrest, cough, death, dogs, heartworms, hemorrhage, mixed breeds, mucosa, necropsy
An 8‐year‐old 24.6 kg mixed breed dog underwent bronchoscopy for evaluation of a persistent progressive cough. Bronchoscopy documented a markedly thick and irregular, cobblestone appearance of the mucosa. A bronchoscopic biopsy was obtained; immediately after the biopsy, a large amount of hemorrhage poured from the endotracheal tube. Multiple efforts to control the hemorrhage were unsuccessful and the dog suffered a cardiopulmonary arrest and could not be revived. A necropsy was performed, which was significant for pallor, evidence of prior heartworm disease, prominent bronchial arteries, and erosion of the submucosal vessels at the site of the biopsy. The cause of death was hemorrhage associated with transbronchial biopsy of an enlarged bronchial artery associated with heartworm disease. This report describes a rare complication of a routine diagnostic procedure.