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Potential use in the treatment of inflammatory disorders and obesity of selected wild edible plants from Calabria region (Southern Italy)

Marrelli, M., Russo, N., Chiocchio, I., Statti, G., Poli, F., Conforti, F.
South African journal of botany 2020 v.128 pp. 304-311
2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, Asparagus officinalis, Bellis perennis, Daucus carota, Sambucus nigra, absorption, antioxidant activity, arthritis, beta-carotene, bleaching, bovine serum albumin, chemical composition, denaturation, dietary fat, drugs, edible species, enzyme inhibition, food plants, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, inflammation, inhibitory concentration 50, macrophages, metabolites, mice, nitric oxide, obesity, protein denaturation, therapeutics, triacylglycerol lipase, Italy
The potential role of plants and their metabolites has been recently considered in the search for new well-tolerated anti-arthritic and anti-obesity drugs. This study was designed to assess the potential effectiveness of the methanolic extracts from four wild edible species from Southern Italy, Asparagus officinalis L., Bellis perennis L., Daucus carota L. and Sambucus nigra L. All these plants have a history as anti-rheumatic or anti-arthritic remedies. The chemical constituents were identified through GC–MS and HPTLC analyses and the in vitro antioxidant activity was determined by means of DPPH, ABTS, FRAP-Ferrozine and β-carotene bleaching tests. To assess the anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic potentials, the capacity to inhibit nitric oxide production in murine macrophage RAW 264.7 cells and protein denaturation was measured. The anti-obesity potential was determined by evaluating the ability of the sample to inhibit pancreatic lipase, a key enzyme for dietary fats absorption. The raw extract of D. carota showed the best inhibitory activity on NO production (IC₅₀ = 45.1 ± 1.0 μg/mL), followed by B. perennis and A. officinalis (IC₅₀ equal to 193.1 ± 3.2 μg/mL and 506.3 ± 5.1 μg/mL, respectively). D. carota induced also inhibitory effects against the heat-induced denaturation of bovine serum albumin (IC₅₀ = 878.7 ± 19.09 μg/mL) and the best lipase inhibitory potential (IC₅₀ = 1.63 ± 0.07 mg/mL). Our findings suggest that this species could be a potential effective therapeutic agent to treat inflammation and arthritis, supporting the traditional popular use of this plant.