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Novel nanovirus and associated alphasatellites identified in milk vetch plants with chlorotic dwarf disease in Iran

Hassan-Sheikhi, Parisa, Heydarnejad, Jahangir, Massumi, Hossain, Kraberger, Simona, Varsani, Arvind
Virus research 2020 v.276 pp. 197830
Astragalus, Nanovirus, chlorosis, dwarfing, faba beans, genome, hosts, leaf rolling, leaves, polymerase chain reaction, viruses, Iran
Members of the family Nanoviridae are multi-component single-stranded DNA viruses that infect a variety of plant species. Using a combination of conventional PCR and high throughput sequencing-based approach, we identified a novel nanovirus infecting two symptomatic milk vetch plants (Astragalus myriacanthus Boiss.; family Fabaceae) showing marginal leaf chlorosis, little leaves and dwarfing in Iran. All eight segments (DNA-C, DNA-M, DNA-N, DNA-R, DNA-S, DNA-U1, DNA-U2 and DNAU4) were recovered and Sanger sequenced. The genome of this new nanovirus, hereby referred to as milk vetch chlorotic dwarf virus (MVCDV), shares 62.2–74.7 % nucleotide pairwise identity with the genomes of other nanoviruses. DNA-C, DNA-M, DNA-N, DNA-S components are most closely related to those of black medic leaf roll virus (BMLRV), sharing between 67.8–81.2 % identity. We also identified three nanoalphasatellites (family Alphasatellitidae) associated with the nanovirus which belong to species Faba bean necrotic yellows alphasatellite 1 (genus Subclovsatellite), Faba bean necrotic yellows alphasatellite 2 (genus Fabenesatellite) and Sophora yellow stunt alphasatellite 5 (genus Clostunsatellite). Given the significant diversity of Astragalus spp. in Iran, it is likely that there could be more nanoviruses circulating in these plants and that these may play a role in the spread of these nanovirus to cultivated fabaceous hosts.