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Combined toxicity and detoxification of lead, cadmium and arsenic in Solanum nigrum L.

Li, Xinxin, Cui, Xiaowei, Zhang, Xu, Liu, Wei, Cui, Zhaojie
Journal of hazardous materials 2020 v.389 pp. 121874
Solanum nigrum, antioxidant activity, arsenic, cadmium, cell walls, fractionation, lead, leaves, oxidative stress, plant tissues, roots, shoots, soil, stems, toxicity
A 3-factor-5-level central composite design was conducted to investigate the combined toxicity and detoxification mechanisms of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and arsenic (As) in Solanum nigrum L. The three metal(loid)s exhibited low-dose stimulation and high-dose inhibition on plant length. Analyses of eleven oxidative stress and antioxidant parameters showed all Pb, Cd and As induced oxidative damages, and the co-exposure further enhanced their toxic effects. Pb, Cd and As were mainly accumulated in plant roots and poorly translocated to shoots, being beneficial for metal(loid) detoxification. The results of subcellular fractionation showed that Pb, Cd and As in plant leaves, stems and roots were mainly localized in the cell wall and soluble fractions. Most of Pb and As in soils occurred in residual fraction while Cd in exchangeable fraction. Although single Pb, Cd and As in all plant tissues existed predominantly in 1 M NaCl-soluble form, the d-H₂O and 80 % ethanol-soluble forms were increased under the binary or ternary combinations. This study will conduce to the potential use of S. nigrum L. in the phytostablization of soil co-contaminated with Pb, Cd and As.