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Metabolism of 17β-estradiol by Novosphingobium sp. ES2-1 as probed via HRMS combined with 13C3-labeling
- Li, Shunyao, Liu, Juan, Williams, Mark A., Ling, Wanting, Sun, Kai, Lu, Chao, Gao, Yanzheng, Waigi, Michael Gatheru
- Journal of hazardous materials 2020 v.389 pp. 121875
- Sphingomonas, activated sludge, ammonia, biodegradation, cleavage (chemistry), estradiol, estrone, half life, ketones, mass spectrometry, metabolism, metabolites, oxidation, phenol, pyridines, sewage treatment
- This study investigated the biodegradation and metabolic mechanisms of 17β-estradiol (E2) by Novosphingobium sp. ES2-1 isolated from the activated sludge in a domestic sewage treatment plant (STP). It could degrade 97.1% E2 (73.5 μmol/L) in 7 d with a biodegradation half-life of 1.29 d. E2 was initially converted to estrone (E1), then to 4-hydroxyestrone (4-OH-E1), before subsequent monooxygenation reactions cleaved 4-OH-E1 into a metabolite with long-chain ketones structure (metabolite P8). However, when 4-OH-E1 was cleaved through the 4,5-seco pathway, the resulting phenol ring cleavage product could randomly condense with NH₃ to yield a pyridine derivative, accompanied by the uncertain loss of a carboxy group at C4 before the condensation. The derivative was further oxidized into the metabolites with both pyridine and long-chain ketones structure (metabolite N5) through a similar formation mechanism as for P8 performed. This research presents several novel metabolites and shows that E2 can be biodegraded into the metabolite with long-chain structure through three optional pathways, thereby reducing E2 contamination.