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Measurements of echocardiographic indices and biomarkers of kidney injury in dogs with chronic kidney disease

Hezzell, M.J., Foster, J.D., Oyama, M.A., Buch, J., Farace, G., Quinn, J.J., Yerramilli, M.
The veterinary journal 2020 v.255 pp. 105420
biomarkers, blood plasma, blood proteins, body weight, death, dogs, echocardiography, glomerular filtration rate, heart diseases, hematocrit, humans, kidney diseases, kidneys, mortality, natriuretic peptides, neutrophils, observational studies, patients, risk, troponin I
Pathophysiological cardiac and renal interactions are termed cardiovascular-renal disorder (CvRD). Cardiovascular disease/dysfunction secondary to kidney disease (CvRDK), is a leading cause of death in human chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. The presence and clinical impact of CvRDK in dogs with CKD is unknown. We hypothesized that echocardiographic measurements, and cardiac and renal biomarkers, will be altered in dogs with CKD and associated with survival. Eleven dogs with CKD (n = 6 IRIS stage 2, n = 5 IRIS stage 3) and without primary cardiac disease, plus 12 healthy age-matched control dogs, were recruited to this prospective observational study. Dogs underwent standard echocardiography, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) estimation by iohexol clearance, and measurement of plasma cardiac troponin I and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), plasma and urinary cystatin B, and urinary clusterin and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL). Values were compared between groups, and their association with all-cause mortality explored.Dogs with CKD had significantly lower GFR and higher NT-proBNP, urinary cystatin B, clusterin, and NGAL, compared to controls (P < 0.05). Echocardiographic measurements were similar between dogs with CKD and controls. Median follow-up time was 666 days, during which six dogs with CKD died. Risk of death was associated with increasing age, serum total protein, and normalized left ventricular posterior wall thickness (LVPWDN) and decreasing bodyweight and packed cell volume. Although baseline differences in echocardiographic measurements were not evident between dogs with moderate CKD and controls, the presence of CvRDK was suggested by the association between LVPWDN and survival.