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Diurnal and Seasonal Variation of Isoprene Biosynthesis-Related Genes in Grey Poplar Leaves

Mayrhofer, Sabine, Teuber, Markus, Zimmer, Ina, Louis, Sandrine, Fischbach, Robert J., Schnitzler, Jörg-Peter
Plant physiology 2005 v.139 no.1 pp. 474-484
Populus canescens, leaves, plant proteins, alcohol oxidoreductases, complementary DNA, alkyl (aryl) transferases, enzyme activity, phytoene synthase, messenger RNA, isoprenoids, volatile organic compounds, biosynthesis, biochemical pathways, photosynthesis, plant pigments, diurnal variation, seasonal variation, plant biochemistry, plant genetics, nucleotide sequences
Transcript levels of mRNA from 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate reductoisomerase (PcDXR), isoprene synthase (PcISPS), and phytoene synthase (PcPSY) showed strong seasonal variations in leaves of Grey poplar (Populus x canescens [Aiton] Sm.). These changes were dependent on the developmental stage and were strongly correlated to temperature and light. The expression rates of the genes PcDXR and PcISPS were found to be significantly correlated to each other, whereas the expression of the PcPSY gene showed a different seasonal pattern. Protein concentration and enzyme activity of PcISPS showed distinct seasonal patterns peaking in late summer, whereas highest transcription levels of PcISPS were observed in early summer. Moreover, correlation between PcISPS protein concentration and enzyme activity changed, in particular in autumn, when PcISPS protein levels remained high while enzyme activity declined, indicating posttranslational modifications of the enzyme. The positive correlation between dimethylallyl diphosphate levels and PcISPS protein content was found to be consistent with the demonstrated synchronized regulation of PcDXR and PcISPS, suggesting that metabolic flux through the 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate pathway and isoprene emission capacity are closely intercoordinated. Transcript levels of PcISPS showed strong diurnal variation with maximal values before midday in contrast to PcDXR, whose gene expression exhibited no clear intraday changes. During the course of a day, in vitro PcISPS activities did not change, whereas leaf dimethylallyl diphosphate levels and isoprene emission showed strong diurnal variations depending on actual temperature and light profiles on the respective day. These results illustrate that the regulation of isoprene biosynthesis in Grey poplar leaves seems to happen on transcriptional, posttranslational, and metabolic levels and is highly variable with respect to seasonal and diurnal changes in relation to temperature and light.