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Diversity of endophytic fungi associated with Carapichea ipecacuanha from a native fragment of the Atlantic Rain Forest

Ferreira, M.C., de Assis, J.C.S., Rosa, L.H.
South African journal of botany 2019
Calonectria, Carapichea ipecacuanha, Ceratobasidium, Colletotrichum, Diaporthe, Fusarium, Pochonia, Trichoderma, Xylaria, endophytes, fungal communities, fungi, leaves, medicinal plants, plant pathogens, plant tissues, species diversity, taxonomy, threatened species, tropical plants, tropical rain forests, Brazil
We focused on the taxonomy and diversity of endophytic fungi associated with the threatened medicinal plant Carapichea ipecacuanha, present in a native fragment of the Atlantic Rain Forest in Brazil. One hundred and seventy-six fungal isolates were recovered from leaf, stem, and root tissues of C. ipecacuanha. The isolates comprised 28 taxa of Colletotrichum, Ceratobasidium, Fusarium, Trichoderma, Diaporthe, Pochonia, Calonectria, and Xylaria. Colletotrichum was the dominant genus. Colletotrichum gigasporum and Colletotrichum sp. 1 were the most dominant taxa, which occurred systematically in all plant tissues. In contrast, Calonectria lateralis, Fusarium delphinoides, Xylaria sp., and Diaporthe spp. occurred as singlets. We detected a rich and diverse endophytic fungal community in the different tissues of C. ipecacuanha dominated by genera recognised as phytopathogens and decomposers. The findings indicate that tropical plants are a rich reservoir of fungal diversity, which is also threatened by the devastation of the natural tropical rainforest environments.