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Cold hardiness of diapausing and non-diapausing pupae of the European grapevine moth, Lobesia botrana

Andreadis, S.S., Milonas, P.G., Savopoulou-Soultani, M.
Entomologia experimentalis et applicata 2005 v.117 no.2 pp. 113-118
Lobesia botrana, pupae, cold tolerance, supercooling point, cold injury, mortality, temperature, acclimation, diapause, overwintering
Lobesia botrana (Denis & Schiffermüller) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) is a key pest of grapes in Europe. It overwinters as a pupa in the bark crevices of the plant. Supercooling point (SCP) and low temperature survival was investigated in the laboratory and was determined using a cool bath and a 1 °C min-1 cooling rate. Freezing was fatal both to diapausing and non-diapausing pupae. SCP was significantly lower in diapausing male (-24.8 °C) and female (-24.5 °C) pupae than in non-diapausing ones (-22.7 and -22.5 °C, respectively). Sex had no influence on SCP both for diapausing and non-diapausing pupae. Supercooling was also not affected by acclimation. However, acclimation did improve survival of diapausing pupae at temperatures above the SCP. Survival increased as acclimation period increased and the influence was more profound at the lower temperatures examined. Diapausing pupae could withstand lower temperatures than non-diapausing ones and lethal temperature was significantly lower than for non-diapausing pupae. Freezing injury above the SCP has been well documented for both physiological stages of L. botrana pupae. Our findings suggest a diapause-related cold hardiness for L. botrana and given its cold hardiness ability, winter mortality due to low temperatures is not expected to occur, especially in southern Europe.