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Biosensors on the road to early diagnostic and surveillance of Alzheimer's disease

Carneiro, Pedro, Morais, Simone, do Carmo Pereira, Maria
Talanta 2020 v.211 pp. 120700
Alzheimer disease, analytical methods, biomarkers, biosensors, cost effectiveness, disease prevalence, electrochemistry, monitoring, nanomaterials
Alzheimer's disease is a debilitating and largely untreatable condition with subtle onset and slow progression over an extensive period of time, which culminate in increasing levels of disability. As Alzheimer's disease prevalence is expected to grow exponentially in the upcoming decades, there is an urgency to develop analytical technologies for the sensitive, reliable and cost-effective detection of Alzheimer's disease biomarkers. Biosensors are powerful analytical devices that translate events of biological recognition on physical or chemical transducers into electrical, thermal or optical signals. The high sensitivity and selectivity of biosensors associated with easy, rapid and low-cost determination of analytes have made this discipline one of the most intensively studied in the past decades.This review centers on recent advances, challenges and trends of Alzheimer's disease biosensing particularly in the effort to combine the unique properties of nanomaterials with biorecognition elements. In the last decade, impressive progresses have been made towards the development of biosensors, mainly electrochemical and optical, for detection of Alzheimer's disease biomarkers in the pico- and femto-molar range. Nonetheless, advances in multiplexed detection, robustness, stability and specificity are still necessary to ensure an accurate and differentiated diagnosis of this disease.