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Traditional and emerging organophosphate esters (OPEs) in indoor dust of Nanjing, eastern China: Occurrence, human exposure, and risk assessment

Zhao, Luming, Zhang, Yayun, Deng, Yirong, Jian, Kang, Li, Jianhua, Ya, Miaolei, Su, Guanyong
The Science of the total environment 2020 v.712 pp. 136494
average daily intake, college students, dust, engineers, esters, graduate students, inhalation exposure, oral exposure, organophosphorus compounds, phosphates, pollution, China
Here, fifteen OPEs were investigated in n = 50 floor dust samples collected from six types of indoor spaces in Nanjing, eastern China, in the year 2018. Ten OPEs, including tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), tris(2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate (TCIPP), tris(1,3-dichloro-isopropyl) phosphate (TDCIPP), tris(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate (TEHP), tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBOEP), 2-ethylhexyl-diphenyl phosphate (EHDPP), triphenyl phosphate (TPHP), tris(methyl-phenyl) phosphate (TMPP), 4-biphenylyl diphenyl phosphate (4-BPDP) and tris(2-biphenylyl) phosphate (TBPP), were detected in at least one of the analyzed samples (>method limits of quantification). Regardless of indoor spaces, EHDPP (34% of Σ₈OPEs, mean: 1.43 μg/g) and TDCIPP (19%, 0.81 μg/g) were the ascendant OPEs in indoor floor dust. 4-BPDP and TBPP were detectable in indoor floor dust samples, but at relatively low detection frequencies with 2% and 10%, respectively. Various indoor microenvironments exhibited different pollution characteristics of OPEs. Floor dust collected from electronic product maintenance centers contained the richest OPE contaminants with highest mean Σ₈OPEs concentration of 7.92 μg/g. On the basis of measured Σ₁₀OPEs concentrations in dust sample, we estimated daily intake via floor dust ingestion to be 1.37, 0.75 and 1.24 ng/kg BW/day for electronic engineers, undergraduates, and graduate students under mean-exposure scenario, respectively. Overall, our study reported the occurrence of 4-BPDP and TBPP in environmental samples for the first time, and demonstrated that indoor floor dust ingestion exposure does values were far less than reference dosage values of oral toxicity proposed by United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Integrated Risk Information System.