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Alternative primers are required for pullulan biosynthesis in Aureobasidium melanogenum P16

Chen, Tie-Jun, Liu, Guang-Lei, Chen, Lu, Yang, Guang, Hu, Zhong, Chi, Zhen-Ming, Chi, Zhe
International journal of biological macromolecules 2020 v.147 pp. 10-17
Aureobasidium, amylases, biosynthesis, catalytic activity, ceramides, genes, glucosylceramides, glycogen, glycogen (starch) synthase, glycosides, industry, mutants, pullulan, starch, sterols, yeasts
Although pullulan has many uses in industry, the detailed mechanisms of its biosynthesis still require clarification. In this study, it was found that a short α-1,4-glucosyl chain (pullulan primer) synthesized by the glycogenins Glg1 and Glg2 for initiation of glycogen biosynthesis was also needed for pullulan synthesis. The primers were also synthesized on sterol glycosides and glucosylceramides by catalysis of sterol glucosyltransferase (Sgt1) and ceramide β-glucosyltransferase (Gcs1). All the primers might be elongated to be long α-1,4-glucosyl chain (pullulan precursor) by catalysis of the glycogen synthetase domain of the AmAgs2 as previously reported. Then, the amylase domain of the same AmAgs2 was responsible for pullulan biosynthesis. Removal of all the genes encoding Glg1, Glg2, Gcs1 and Sgt1 made all the mutants produce much less pullulan than the strain P16. However, pullulan synthesis could not be stopped totally in these mutants, suggesting that any other unknown alternative pullulan primers may exist in the yeast cells. Complementation of all the genes in the mutants restored pullulan biosynthesis. This is the first time to report that like starch and glycogen biosynthesis, alternative primers are also required for pullulan biosynthesis in Aureobasidium melanogenum P16.