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Genetic differentiation between eastern populations and recent introductions of potato psyllid (Bactericera cockerelli) into western North America

Liu, Deguang, Trumble, John T., Stouthamer, Richard
Entomologia experimentalis et applicata 2006 v.118 no.3 pp. 177-183
genes, cytochrome-c oxidase, Psyllidae, population genetics, genetic variation, geographical variation, genetic markers, microsatellite repeats, mitochondrial DNA, internal transcribed spacers, nucleotide sequences, endosymbionts, Wolbachia, biotypes, Bactericera cockerelli, Mexico, California, Colorado, Nebraska
Although tomato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc) (Homoptera, Psyllidae), annually causes significant losses in potato and tomato crops in eastern Mexico and the central United States, infestations in western North America have been historically rare. However, substantial populations appeared in 2001 in western North America and caused losses in tomato production exceeding 80%; losses in 2004 reached 50%. To determine if these new outbreaks were the result of a simple range expansion or the evolution of a new B. cockerelli biotype, inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers, as well as mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase I (COI), internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2), and wsp sequence data were used to characterize populations of the psyllid. Western populations from Baja, Mexico, Orange County, and Ventura County were compared with populations from central USA (Colorado and Nebraska) and eastern Mexico (Coahuila). Based on ISSR markers, the psyllid populations clustered into two groups, with one group including populations from western North America and the other group including populations from central USA and eastern Mexico. For COI comparisons, there was one base-pair difference found in the 544 bp-long COI fragments, but the populations again segregated along the same geographic lines. Two strains of Wolbachia were identified, the maximal differences between wsp clones from all populations was 5 bp for strain Bac1 and 23 bp for strain Bac2 out of a 555-bp fragment. The ISSR data, therefore, were consistent in indicating the development of a new psyllid biotype that has adapted to western North America rather than a simple range expansion, but the other genetic data sets were less conclusive.