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Metal-Free Synthesis of Boron-Doped Graphene Glass by Hot-Filament Chemical Vapor Deposition for Wave Energy Harvesting

Zhai, Zihao, Shen, Honglie, Chen, Jieyi, Li, Xuemei, Li, Yufang
ACS applied materials & interfaces 2019 v.12 no.2 pp. 2805-2815
boranes, boron, electric potential difference, glass, graphene, nanocrystals, nitrogen, sodium chloride, vapors, water power
Property modulation of graphene glass by heteroatom doping such as boron (B) and nitrogen (N) is important to extend its practical applications. However, unlike N doping, research studies about the metal-free synthesis of B-doped graphene on glass through the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method are rarely reported. Herein, we report a hot-filament CVD approach to prepare B-doped graphene glass using diborane (B₂H₆) as the B dopant. The synthesized B-doped graphene was uniform on a large-scale and composed of nanocrystalline graphene grains. By raising the B₂H₆ flow from 0 to 15 sccm, the B content of graphene was facilely modulated from 0 to 5.3 at. %, accompanied with the improvement of both transparency and conductivity. The B-doped graphene prepared on glass at 15 sccm B₂H₆ flow presented the optimal transparent conductive performance superior to those of most reported graphene glass fabricated by other state-of-the-art approaches. Furthermore, for the first time, the performance of graphene glass for wave energy harvesting has been elaborated. It was found that the output power produced by inserting graphene glass into 0.6 M sodium chloride (NaCl) solution could be improved by more than 6 times through B doping. The significant enhancement resulted from the higher waving voltage and smaller resistance of B-doped graphene on glass than the pristine ones. In addition, the waving voltage inversed the polarity after B doping, which was due to the opposite variation of surface potential of pristine and B-doped graphene after NaCl immersion. This work would pave ways for the metal-free preparation and expand the energy-harvesting applications of B-doped graphene materials.