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Identification of hazards and critical control points during attiéké (a fermented cassava product) process in Côte d'Ivoire
- Kouamé, A.K., Bouatenin, M.J.‐P.K., Djéni, T.N., Dje, K.M.
- Letters in applied microbiology 2020 v.70 no.2 pp. 87-94
- Bacillus cereus, HACCP, Staphylococcus aureus, cassava, coliform bacteria, cooking, critical control points, crushing, drying, fermentation, hydrogen cyanide, industrialization, ingredients, pH, packaging, product safety, raw materials, roots, spores, starch products, women, Cote d'Ivoire
- Attiéké is the major fermented plant food in Côte d'Ivoire. The aim of this study was to identify hazards and critical control points (CCP) in order to implement a HACCP system for the production of attiéké. Physico‐chemical and microbiological analyses were carried out. pH of the cossettes used as raw material for attieke process was slightly acidic (6·5 ± 0·23). But attiéké produced had an acid pH (4·55 ± 0·67). The very high amount of hydrocyanic acid in cassava roots (116 ± 9·42 mg kg⁻¹) was reduced to a lower value (3·4 ± 0·14 mg kg⁻¹) in attiéké. It was less than the Codex Alimentarus recommended dose (10 mg kg⁻¹). Microbiological analysis of the samples revealed the presence of coliforms, bacillus, Staphylococcus aureus and moulds in the intermediate products, the packaged attieke, the utensils, environment and ingredients. During the fermentation and pressing stage, the coliforms disappeared and the loads of Bacillus cereus, S. aureus and moulds were reduced. Cooking eliminated all micro‐organisms except B. cereus (spores) whose load was reduced to a value of (1·1 ± 0·4)10² CFU per gram. All these micro‐organisms reappeared in attiéké just after packaging. The load of micro‐organisms in the packaged attiéké was lower than the Codinorm standard, CCP were cassava roots, the crushing, fermentation, and drying, cooking and packaging stage. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: This study demonstrates the great need to carry out microbiological tests frequently on attieke and even more the need to apply correct HACCP system during the production. This study will make it possible to minimize the problems encountered by women producers of attiéké, ensure consumer safety, face competition from imported starch products (wheat, rice, etc.), contribute to the opening of a small and medium‐scale industrialization path for the production of attiéké and strengthen standardization on attiéké to facilitate its export.