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Formation and Development of Pseudothecia of Venturia nashicola

Lian, S., Li, B.-H., Xu, X.-M.
Phytopathologische Zeitschrift 2006 v.154 no.2 pp. 119-124
Venturia (Pleosporales), plant pathogenic fungi, scab diseases, conidia, disease transmission, ascospores, sporulation, leaves, orchards, meteorological parameters, weather, rain, air microbiology, China
Conidia are believed to be the main source of primary inoculum for pear scab, caused by Venturia nashicola, in northern China. Experiments were conducted to investigate the development and potential role of V. nashicola ascospores in northern China. Leaves with pear scab lesions were collected from commercial orchards in November 2003 and 2004 to monitor pseudothecia formation under various environments. Pseudothecium production was shown to occur readily in northern China. The key requirement for pseudothecium production is the occurrence of rain during the winter and early spring, although the exact timing of these rain events appeared not to affect their development. Excess water may lead to the accelerated leaf decay and hence lead to production of fewer pseudothecia. More than 80% scabbed leaves, placed in a pear orchard, produced pseudothecia. Leaves with only non-sporulating scab lesions in autumn were also able to produce a large number of pseudothecia. Both airborne ascospores and conidia of V. nashicola were caught in a pear orchard. Most ascospores were released by late-May, a month after pear blossom. These results suggest that ascospores may play an important role in the early stage of pear scab epidemics in spring in northern China.