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Synthesis a graphene-like magnetic biochar by potassium ferrate for 17β-estradiol removal: Effects of Al2O3 nanoparticles and microplastics

Liu, Ni, Liu, Yunguo, Tan, Xiaofei, Li, Meifang, Liu, Shaobo, Hu, Xinjiang, Zhang, Peng, Dai, Mingyang, Xu, Weihua, Wen, Jun
The Science of the total environment 2020 v.715 pp. 136723
Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, adsorbents, adsorption, aluminum oxide, aqueous solutions, atomic force microscopy, biochar, calcium, chlorides, electrostatic interactions, estradiol, humic acids, ionic strength, ions, magnesium, magnetism, microplastics, models, nanoparticles, nitrates, pH, phosphates, potassium, scanning electron microscopy, sodium, sorption isotherms, sulfates, surface area, transmission electron microscopy
A graphene-like magnetic biochar (GLMB) was synthesized using lotus seedpod and potassium ferrate with simple step and applied for E2 adsorption. GLMB was characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscope (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Raman, X-ray diffraction (XRD), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and BET surface area. Several common (solution pH, ionic strength, humic acid and foreign ions) and new (Al₂O₃ nanoparticles and microplastics (MPs)) water experiment conditions were investigated. Characterization results demonstrated that the sample was fabricated successfully and it possessed some graphene-like properties and a large surface area (828.37 m²/g). Adsorption results revealed that the pseudo-second-order kinetics and Langmuir isotherm models could provide a better description for E2 uptake behavior. The E2 adsorption capacity could be influenced by solution pH, ionic strength and SO₄²⁻ ions, and the effect of humic acid and background electrolyte (Na⁺, K⁺, Ca²⁺, Mg²⁺, Cl⁻, NO₃⁻, PO₄³⁻) could be neglected. The presences of Al₂O₃/MPs significantly decreased the time to reach adsorption equilibrium for E2 adsorption on GLMB, but had no obvious improvement or inhibiting effects on E2 removal when the adsorption reached equilibrium. The adsorption mechanism for E2 adsorption on GLMB was multiple, which involving π-π interactions, micropore filling effects, electrostatic interaction. The regeneration experiments showed that GLMB possessed a good regeneration performance. Based on the experimental results and comparative analysis with other adsorbents, GLMB was an economical, high-efficiency, green and recyclable adsorbent for E2 removal from aqueous solution.