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Phytohormones-induced senescence efficiently promotes the transport of cadmium from roots into shoots of plants: A novel strategy for strengthening of phytoremediation

Zhu, Huihui, Chen, Liang, Xing, Wei, Ran, Shangmin, Wei, Zhihui, Amee, Maurice, Wassie, Misganaw, Niu, Hong, Tang, Diyong, Sun, Jie, Du, Dongyun, Yao, Jun, Hou, Haobo, Chen, Ke, Sun, Jie
Journal of hazardous materials 2020 v.388 pp. 122080
Brassica juncea, Festuca arundinacea, abscisic acid, cadmium, copper, heavy metals, hydroponics, phytoremediation, pot culture, roots, salicylic acid, shoots, soil, zinc
Due to the long growth period of plants, phytoremediation is time costly. Improving the accumulation of cadmium (Cd) in shoots of plants will promote the efficiency of phytoremediation. In this study, two senescence-relative phytohormones, abscisic acid (ABA) and salicylic acid (SA), were applied to strengthening phytoremediation of Cd by tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea S.). Under hydroponic culture, phytohormones treatment increased the Cd content of shoots 11.4-fold over the control, reaching 316.3 mg/kg (dry weight). Phytohormones-induced senescence contributes to the transport of heavy metals, and HMA3 was found to play a key role in this process. Additionally, this strategy could strengthen the accumulation of Cu and Zn in tall fescue shoots. Moreover, in soil pot culture, the strategy increased shoot Cd contents 2.56-fold over the control in tall fescue, and 2.55-fold over the control in Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.), indicating its comprehensive adaptability and potential use in the field. In summary, senescence-induced heavy metal transport is developed as a novel strategy to strengthen phytoremediation. The strategy could be applied at the end of phytoremediation with an additional short duration (7 days) with comprehensive adaptability, and markedly strengthen the phytoremediation in the field.