U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Dot gov

Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.


Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.


Main content area

Determinants of participation and intensity of participation in collective action: evidence from smallholder avocado farmers in Kenya

A. Gyau, M. Mbugua, J. Oduol
Journal on chain and network science 2016 v.16 no.2 pp. 147-156
avocados, collective action, crop production, education, farmers, farmers' attitudes, financial economics, fruit growing, gender, interviews, logit analysis, market access, markets, poverty, Kenya
Access to markets is one important strategy which can assist smallholder farmers to move out of poverty. Collective action through farmers' groups has been identified as a strategy to improve the participation of farmers in markets. This study analyzes the determinants of participation and intensity of participation of collective action in production and marketing of avocado in Kenya. Group participation and the intensity were modelled as a binary choice decision and analyzed using logit models. Interviews were conducted with 301 farmers in avocado production zones in Kenya. The result showed that age, education, gender and perceptions on knowledge and improved technology influence farmers' decision to participate in group activities. Occupation, area of residence and farmers' perception on knowledge and improved technology use, and economic benefits had a significant influence on the intensity of participation. We conclude that it is crucial to educate farmers through trainings, workshops and seminars before group formation in order to ensure that they understand the importance and impacts of collective action. Finally, development practitioners and government organizations which intend to intervene through farmers' groups should understand farmers' perceptions and hence expectations from the groups.