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Parkin overexpression attenuates Aβ-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in HEK293 cells by restoring impaired mitophagy

Wang, Hongmei, Zhang, Ting, Ge, Xuhua, Chen, Jingjiong, Zhao, Yuwu, Fu, Jianliang
Life sciences 2020 v.244 pp. 117322
Alzheimer disease, Western blotting, dyes, membrane potential, mitochondria, mitochondrial membrane, mitophagy, therapeutics
Mitochondrial dysfunction is an early prominent feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In the present study, we sought to investigate whether defective mitophagy is tightly related to amyloid-β (Aβ)-induced mitochondrial dysfunction.Immunofluorescence, western blot and transmission electron microscopy were used to examine mitophagy. Mitochondrial membrane potential was assessed using the JC-1 dye. Mitochondrial ROS was detected using MitoSOX™ Red staining.Aβ induced mitochondrial dysfunction in HEK293 cells. Moreover, Aβ induced an increase in parkin translocation to mitochondria and led to a drastic reduction in cytosolic parkin. Furthermore, Aβ-treated cells displayed a microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) punctate pattern and elevated mitochondrial LC3-II levels, suggesting the upregulation of mitophagy. Notably, Aβ induced the accumulation of mitochondrial p62, which was associated with impaired mitophagy. In addition, Aβ-treated cells exhibited fragmented or swollen mitochondria with severely decreased cristae. We then investigated whether overexpression of parkin could protect cells against Aβ-induced mitochondrial dysfunction. Interestingly, parkin overexpression inhibited Aβ-induced mitochondrial dysfunction. Besides, parkin overexpression increased cytosolic and mitochondrial parkin levels as well as mitochondrial LC3-II levels in Aβ-treated cells. Additionally, parkin overexpression reversed the accumulation of p62 in mitochondria, indicating that parkin overexpression restored impaired mitophagy in Aβ-treated cells. Importantly, parkin overexpression remarkably reversed Aβ-induced mitochondrial fragmentation.Our data demonstrate that overexpression of parkin ameliorates impaired mitophagy and promotes the removal of damaged mitochondria in Aβ-treated cells, indicating that upregulation of parkin-mediated mitophagy may be a potential strategy for the therapy of AD.