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Standardization of tick specific biochemical tools for estimation of esterases, monooxygenases and glutathione S-transferase for characterization of acaricide resistance

Fular, Ashutosh, Gupta, Snehil, Sharma, Anil Kumar, Kumar, Sachin, Upadhaya, Deepak, Shakya, Mukesh, Nagar, Gaurav, Ghosh, Srikant
Pesticide biochemistry and physiology 2020 v.164 pp. 130-139
Culicidae, acaricide resistance, deltamethrin, esterases, glutathione, glutathione transferase, insects, larvae, organophosphorus compounds, pyrethrins, ticks
Protocols to determine metabolic resistance in ticks were mainly derived from reports published using mosquitoes and agriculturally important insects without prior standardization. In the present study, biochemical assays were standardized to quantify acaricide metabolizing enzymes in tick homogenates. Three variables viz., age, number of larvae and reaction time were optimized using reference susceptible IVRI-I and deltamethrin resistant IVRI-IV (Resistance Factor = 194) tick strains. The optimum conditions for estimation of general esterases were 10–15 day old 40 larvae with 15 mins reaction time, 15–20 day old 40 larvae with 20 mins reaction time for Glutathione S- transferase, while 10–15 day old 80 larvae with 5 mins reaction time for monooxygenase. The standardized protocols were further validated in multi acaricide resistant strain (IVRI-V) and in nine field isolates having variable resistant factors to different acaricides. In all the nine heterogeneous field isolates, a significant correlation (p < .05) between resistance to synthetic pyrethroids and over-expression of esterases and monooxygenase was noticed. Similarly, esterases and GST activities were significantly correlated with resistance to organophosphates. The details of the assay protocol are explained for adoption in different laboratories.