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Responses of tropical native and invader C4 grasses to water stress, clipping and increased atmospheric CO2 concentration

Baruch, Zdravko, Jackson, Robert B.
Oecologia 2005 v.145 no.4 pp. 522-532
tropics, savannas, grasses, Trachypogon, invasive species, Hyparrhenia rufa, Melinis minutiflora, drought, water stress, carbon dioxide, elevated atmospheric gases, herbivores, plant growth, seed germination, plant competition, indigenous species
The invasion of African grasses into Neotropical savannas has altered savanna composition, structure and function. The projected increase in atmospheric CO₂ concentration has the potential to further alter the competitive relationship between native and invader grasses. The objective of this study was to quantify the responses of two populations of a widespread native C₄ grass (Trachypogon plumosus) and two African C₄ grass invaders (Hyparrhenia rufa and Melinis minutiflora) to high CO₂ concentration interacting with two primary savanna stressors: drought and herbivory. Elevated CO₂ increased the competitive potential of invader grasses in several ways. Germination and seedling size was promoted in introduced grasses. Under high CO₂, the relative growth rate of young introduced grasses was twice that of native grass (0.58 g g⁻¹ week⁻¹ vs 0.25 g g⁻¹ week⁻¹). This initial growth advantage was maintained throughout the course of the study. Well-watered and unstressed African grasses also responded more to high CO₂ than did the native grass (biomass increases of 21–47% compared with decreases of 13–51%). Observed higher water and nitrogen use efficiency of invader grasses may aid their establishment and competitive strength in unfertile sites, specially if the climate becomes drier. In addition, high CO₂ promoted lower leaf N content more in the invader grasses. The more intensive land use, predicted to occur in this region, may interact with high CO₂ to fincreasesavor the African grasses, as they generally recovered faster after simulated herbivory. The superiority of invader grasses under high CO₂ suggests further in their competitive strength and a potential increased rate of displacement of the native savannas in the future by grasslands dominated by introduced African species.