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Remediation techniques for removal of heavy metals from the soil contaminated through different sources: a review

Dhaliwal, Salwinder Singh, Singh, Jaswinder, Taneja, Parminder Kaur, Mandal, Agniva
Environmental science and pollution research international 2020 v.27 no.2 pp. 1319-1333
food chain, heavy metals, humans, industry, metalloids, phytoremediation, polluted soils, pollution
Heavy metal pollution is one of the serious problems and contaminates the environment by different means with the blow of industries in several countries. Different techniques like physical, chemical, and biological have been used for removal of heavy metal contaminants from the environment. Some of these have limitations such as cost, time consumption, logistical problems, and mechanical involvedness. Nowadays, in situ immobilization of metals, phytoremediation and biological techniques turned out to be best solution for elimination of metal(loid) s from the soil. Here, we reviewed the different remediation techniques for extraction of heavy metals from soil and especially highlighting in situ immobilization technique. The aim of remediation efforts at the contaminant site is to restrict the heavy metal to enter in the environment, food chain, and exposure to humans beings. The type of method used at a given site depends on the various factors like natural processes take place at the contaminated site, soil type, type of chemicals, and the depth of contaminated site.