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Sex-dependent dominance maintains migration supergene in rainbow trout

Pearse Devon E., Barson Nicola J., Nome Torfinn, Gao Guangtu, Campbell Matthew A., Cardoso Alicia, Anderson Eric C., Rundio David E., Williams Thomas H., Naish Kerry A., Moen Thomas, Liu Sixin, Matthew Kent, Minkley David R., Rondeau Eric B., Brieuc Marine S., Sandye Simen Rod, Miller Michael R., Cedillo Lucydalila, Baruch Kobi, Hernandez Alvaro G., Zvi Gil, Tov Doron, Barad Omer, Kuzishchin Kirill, Garza John Carlos, Lindley Steven T., Koop Ben F., Thorgaard Gary H., Palti Yniv, Lien Sigbjorn
Nature ecology & evolution v.3 pp. 1731
Oncorhynchus mykiss, adiposity, chromosome inversions, circadian rhythm, death, dominance (genetics), females, genes, genome assembly, homozygosity, males, mutation, sex chromosomes, sexual development
Traits with different fitness optima in males and females cause sexual conflict when they have a shared genetic basis. Heteromorphic sex chromosomes can resolve this conflict and protect sexually antagonistic polymorphisms but accumulate deleterious mutations. However, many taxa lack differentiated sex chromosomes, and how sexual conflict is resolved in these species is largely unknown. Here we present a chromosome-anchored genome assembly for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and characterize a 56 Mb double-inversion supergene that mediates sex-specific migration through sex-dependent dominance, a mechanism that reduces sexual conflict. The double-inversion contains key photosensory, circadian rhythm, adiposity, and sexual differentiation genes and displays frequency clines associated with latitude and temperature, revealing environmental dependence. Our results constitute the first example of sex-dependent dominance across a large autosomal supergene, a novel mechanism for sexual conflict resolution capable of protecting polygenic sexually antagonistic variation while avoiding the homozygous lethality and deleterious mutation load of heteromorphic sex chromosomes.