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Effect of Lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) Essential Oil on the Survival of Multidrug-Resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg in Contaminated Poultry Drinking Water

C. Peichel, D.V.T. Nair, G. Dewi, A.M. Donoghue, K.M. Reed, A. Kollanoor Johny
Journal of applied poultry research 2019 v.28 no.4 pp. 1121-1130
Cymbopogon citratus, Salmonella Heidelberg, bacterial contamination, birds, disinfectants, drinking water, essential oils, farms, multiple drug resistance, pathogens, poultry, water pollution
Drinking water contaminated with Salmonella could serve as a source for cecal colonization of the pathogen in birds. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of a generally recognized as safe—status essential oil (lemongrass essential oil, LGEO) against multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg (S. Heidelberg) in poultry drinking water. Farm water with and without added droppings, litter, or feed [0.5% (w/v)] inoculated with 6.0 log₁₀ cfu/mL S. Heidelberg was treated with 0, 0.03, 0.06, 0.125, 0.25, or 0.5% (v/v) LGEO and incubated at 12.5°C or 22°C for up to 7 d. The number of viable S. Heidelberg populations was determined on d 0, 1, 3, 5, and 7. At 12.5°C, all concentrations of LGEO inactivatedS. Heidelberg to non-detectable levels in water alone and water contaminated with droppings or litter by d 7 (>6 log₁₀ cfu/mL; P < 0.05). The highest LGEO concentration tested (0.5%) resulted in >5.0 log₁₀ cfu/mL reduction of S. Heidelberg on d 7 in water contaminated with feed (P < 0.05). At 22°C, all concentrations of LGEO resulted in the reduction of S. Heidelberg to non-detectable levels in water alone by d 5 (>6 log₁₀ cfu/mL; P < 0.05). Concentrations of LGEO ≥0.125% resulted in inhibition of S. Heidelberg to non-detectable levels in water contaminated with droppings from d 5 onwards (P < 0.05). The LGEO at the highest tested concentration (0.5%) resulted in >5.0 log₁₀ cfu/mL reduction of S. Heidelberg in water contaminated with litter on d 7 (P < 0.05) but did not result in reduction of the pathogen in water contaminated with feed at 22°C. Results indicate the potential of LGEO against S. Heidelberg in water alone or water containing droppings or litter, indicating its efficacy as a natural disinfectant in poultry drinking water.