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Improving yield, oil content and water productivity of dryland canola by supplementary irrigation and selenium spraying

Mohtashami, Raham, Movahhedi Dehnavi, Mohsen, Balouchi, Hamidreza, Faraji, Hooshang
Agricultural water management 2020 v.232 pp. 106046
arid lands, canola, cultivars, drought, filling period, flowering, foliar application, grain yield, harvest index, irrigation management, lipid content, oils, seeds, selenium, sodium selenate, spaying, spraying, water stress, Iran
Determining the timing of supplementary irrigation in water limited conditions is one approach to reducing drought damage, increasing water productivity, and improving the yield of dryland canola. Selenium spraying may be an appropriate strategy for increasing crop tolerance to drought stress. The aim of this research was to evaluate supplementary irrigation and selenium spraying on the yield and water productivity of two canola cultivars under subtropical dryland conditions. The experiment was a split factorial in a randomized complete block design with three replications conducted during 2016–2018 at Gachsaran Agricultural Research Station, Iran. The main factors consisted of irrigation regimes (no irrigation (I₁), supplementary irrigation at flowering stage (I₂), grain filling (I₃) and flowering + grain filling (I₄)), and a sub-factor comprising Hyola 401 (water stress tolerant) and Delgan (less tolerant to water stress) cultivars and selenium spaying from the source of sodium selenate (Na₂SeO₄) (zero (S₀), 1.5 (S₁) and 3 (S₂) mg L⁻¹). Results showed that the application of supplementary irrigation increased the yield, yield components, oil percentage, harvest index and water productivity. Selenium spraying increased the weight of 1000 seeds and grain yield. Grain yield was increased from 802 kg ha⁻¹ in S₀ and I₁ treatment up to 2274 kg ha⁻¹ in S₂ and I₄. The Delgan and Hyola harvest index rose from 19.94 % and 22.1 % in I₁ to 29.13 % and 26.99 % in I₄, respectively. The highest oil percentage (37.6 %) was observed in the I₄ regime, the highest water productivity (0.67 kg m⁻³) was obtained from I₄ and S₂ treatments, and the lowest water productivity (0.34 kg m⁻³) was seen in I₁ and S₀ treatments. Generally, the results showed that high yielding canola production can be achieved through supplementary irrigation in two stages (flowering and grain filling stages) and by applying 1.5 mg L⁻¹ selenium foliar application in subtropical dryland conditions.