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Resistance to dicarboximide fungicides in Stemphylium vesicarium of Italian pear orchards

Alberoni, G., Collina, M., Pancaldi, D., Brunelli, A.
European journal of plant pathology 2005 v.113 no.2 pp. 211-219
mechanism of action, orchards, Pyrus communis, fungal diseases of plants, cross resistance, iprodione, disease control, pears, fungicide resistance, fungal spores, vinclozolin, fruit crops, procymidone, Stemphylium vesicarium, Italy
Brown spot, caused by Stemphylium vesicarium, is the main fungal disease of pear in northern Italy where it may cause severe crop losses and it requires numerous fungicide applications. Monitoring work was performed by collecting fungal populations in Po valley between 1995 and 2003 in order to study the dicarboximides resistance already detected in the 1990s for procymidone as a result of control failures in field. Sensitivity tests showed that the resistant strains occur all over the monitored areas. Where present the efficacy of procymidone in field is completely lost in spite of what is observed often in other fungi. In most of the isolates (phenotype R1), S. vesicarium resistance level to procymidone (Sialex) was shown to be very high (RF approximately equal to 3000) whereas it was lower towards the other dicarboximides iprodione (Rovral), vinclozolin (Ronilan) and chlozolinate (Serinal) (RF approximately equal to 10). Therefore the resistance is partially crossed even if a high level of resistance was rarely observed for all dicarboximides (phenotype R2). At least two different mechanisms of resistance seem to be involved: one that may provide a moderate resistance and the other that may give a high resistance level. Monospore isolate sensitivity tests confirmed the qualitative response suggested by such high resistance factors.