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Growth and sporulation of Stemphylium vesicarium, the causal agent of brown spot of pear, on herb plants of orchard lawns

Rossi, V., Pattori, E., Giosue, S., Bugiani, R.
European journal of plant pathology 2005 v.111 no.4 pp. 361-370
orchards, correlation, growth promotion, Pyrus communis, sporulation, conidia, fungal diseases of plants, herbaceous plants, lawns and turf, ascospores, pears, leaf spot, pathogenicity, environmental factors, microbial growth, leaves, Pleospora, Stemphylium vesicarium, inoculum
The inoculum sources of ascospores of Pleospora allii and of conidia of its anamorph Stemphylium vesicarium were investigated in relation to the brown spot disease epidemiology on pear. Dead and living leaves of three pear varieties (Abate Fétel, Conference and William), seven grasses (Poa pratensis, Festuca rubra, Festuca ovina, Lolium perenne, Digitaria sanguinalis and Setaria glauca) and Trifolium repens, which are used in pear orchard lawns, were inoculated with conidia of Stemphylium vesicarium virulent on pear and incubated under controlled-environment. Stemphylium vesicarium was always re-isolated from dead leaves of the considered plants, but not from symptomless green or yellowish living leaves. The fungus was occasionally re-isolated from leaf segments showing unspecific necrosis. Inoculation of pear leaves with isolates from grasses demonstrated that the fungus did not lose pathogenicity. Pseudothecia, ascospores and conidia were produced on all the dead inoculated leaves; differences between specimens were found for phenology of pseudothecia, their density and size, and for the number of conidia produced. Pseudothecia were produced faster in the lawn species than in pear leaves, and their density was higher, especially for S. glauca, L. perenne and P. pratensis. Ascospore maturation and ejection was more concentrated for the pseudothecia developed on pear leaves than for those on F. ovina and S. glauca. All the lawn species produced more conidia than pear leaves.