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Medetomidine with Ketamine and Bupivacaine for Epidural Analgesia in Buffaloes
- Singh, V., Amarpal, Kinjavdekar, P., Aithal, H.P., Pratap, K.
- Veterinary research communications 2005 v.29 no.1 pp. 1-18
- buffaloes, analgesia, medetomidine, ketamine, young animals, spinal cord, combination drug therapy, drug injection, drug evaluation, sedation, locomotion, heart rate, adverse effects, breathing, blood pressure, electrocardiography
- The efficacy of ketamine and bupivacaine in enhancing the epidural analgesia induced by medetomidine was evaluated in 10 buffalo calves utilized repeatedly after a gap of 10 days so that each drug combination was tested in 4 randomly selected animals. In group A, medetomidine (15 microgram/kg), in group B ketamine (2.0 mg/kg), in group C bupivacaine (0.125 mg/kg), in group D medetomidine and ketamine (15 microgram/kg and 2.0 mg/kg), and in group E medetomidine and bupivacaine (15 microgram/kg and 0.125 mg/kg) was administered epidurally. Onset of analgesia was significantly earlier in animals of groups B and D compared to the animals of groups A, C and E. Medetomidine alone or in combination with ketamine/bupivacaine produced complete analgesia of the tail, perineum, inguinal region and upper parts of hind limbs. Ketamine produced a very short duration of complete analgesia at the tail and perineum. Bupivacaine alone produced only mild to moderate analgesia. Both ketamine and bupivacaine prolonged the duration of analgesia. Motor incoordination was mild to moderate in animals of all the groups, but animals remained standing throughout the period of observation. Animals of groups A, D and E showed mild to moderate sedation during the observation period. Ruminal movements decreased nonsignificantly in animals of groups A and E. Mild salivation was observed in animals of all the groups except group C. Significant decrease in heart rate (HR) was recorded after epidural administration of medetomidine or bupivacaine; however, ketamine caused short duration of tachycardia. The administration of ketamine with medetomidine caused lesser decrease in HR compared to medetomidine alone or in combination with bupivacaine. Significant fall in respiratory rate (RR) was recorded after epidural administration of medetomidine or bupivacaine alone, but an increase in RR was recorded after ketamine administration. The fall in RR was less pronounced in animals in which medetomidine was used with ketamine compared to the animals in which medetomidine was used alone or in combination with bupivacaine. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) decreased and central venous pressure (CVP) increased significantly after epidural administration of medetomidine in combination with ketamine or bupivacaine. The ECG changes included tall T wave, QS pattern, RS pattern and ST elevation and heart blocks at different intervals, which were more frequent and pronounced in animals given bupivacaine with medetomidine. It can be concluded that epidural administration of medetomidine can produce complete analgesia of the tail, perineum, inguinal region and upper hind limbs in buffaloes. However, significant depression of cardiovascular parameters was recorded. Administration of ketamine along with medetomidine resulted in significantly early onset and slightly longer duration of analgesia with lesser cardiopulmonary side-effects compared to medetomidine alone or medetomidine with bupivacaine. Addition of ketamine to medetomidine thus seems to be useful for producing epidural analgesia; however, addition of bupivacaine failed to provide any advantage over medetomidine alone.