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Aluminum trichloride caused hippocampal neural cells death and subsequent depression-like behavior in rats via the activation of IL-1β/JNK signaling pathway

Author:
Zhang, Haiyang, Wei, Mian, Lu, Xiangyu, Sun, Qinghong, Wang, Chuqiao, Zhang, Jiuyan, Fan, Honggang
Source:
The Science of the total environment 2020 v.715 pp. 136942
ISSN:
0048-9697
Subject:
aluminum, aluminum chloride, apoptosis, caspase-3, caspase-8, death, enzyme activity, gene expression, gene expression regulation, genes, hippocampus, histopathology, interleukin-1beta, messenger RNA, mitogen-activated protein kinase, necroptosis, neurodegenerative diseases, neurons, oral exposure, phosphorylation, pollutants, protein content, protein synthesis, proteins, rats, signal transduction, tumor necrosis factor-alpha
Abstract:
Aluminum (Al) is an inorganic pollutant that induces nerve cells apoptosis and necroptosis, thereby causing depression and neurodegenerative diseases. IL-1β/JNK signaling pathway can regulate apoptosis and necroptosis. However, it remains unclear whether IL-1β/JNK signaling pathway is involving in the regulation of Al-induced hippocampal neural cells apoptosis and necroptosis. To investigate the mechanism of Al on neural cells apoptosis and necroptosis, rats were orally exposed to different doses of AlCl₃ for 90 days. The open-field test results showed that AlCl₃ caused depressive behavior in rats. Histopathological evidence showed that AlCl₃ induced hippocampal neural cells apoptosis and necrosis. Moreover, Bax/Bcl-2 mRNA expression ratio, caspase-3 activity and mRNA expression and TUNEL positive rates were upregulated, meanwhile, TNF-α mRNA and protein expression levels, TNFR1, RIP1, RIP3 and MLKL proteins levels were increased, while caspase-8 protein level was decreased in the hippocampus of Al-exposed groups. These results proved that AlCl₃ induced hippocampal neural cells apoptosis and necroptosis. Combined with histopathology and correlation analysis, we deduced that hippocampal neural cells were more likely to undergo necroptosis at high doses (450 mg/kg) of AlCl₃, while <150 mg/kg AlCl₃ tended to induce apoptosis. Finally, AlCl₃ increased the proteins level of IL-1β, IL-1RI, IL-1RAcP, JNK and p-JNK, indicating that AlCl₃ activated IL-1β/JNK signaling pathway. However, the application of IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) inhibited the phosphorylation of JNK and the related genes expression of apoptosis and necroptosis caused by AlCl₃. Thus, we concluded that AlCl₃ induced hippocampal neural cells death and depression-like behavior in rats by activating IL-1β/JNK signaling pathway.
Agid:
6834881