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Anti type I allergic property of Japanese butterbur extract and its mast cell degranulation inhibitory ingredients

Shimoda, H., Tanaka, J., Yamada, E., Morikawa, T., Kasajima, N., Yoshikawa, M.
Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 2006 v.54 no.8 pp. 2915-2920
Petasites japonicus, plant extracts, medicinal plants, oral administration, protective effect, medicinal properties, immunosuppression (therapy), anaphylaxis, mast cells, immediate hypersensitivity, rats, guinea pigs, sesquiterpenoids, polyphenols, triterpenoids
Pollenosis is a disease that affects 1 in 10 of the Japanese population. During the season of cedar pollen dispersal, many patients suffer from symptoms such as sniffling, sternutation, and itching of the eyes. Japanese butterbur is a popular vegetable and is one of the few domestic vegetables in Japan. The anti type I allergic effects of an aqueous ethanol extract from aerial parts of Japanese butterbur (JBE) were evaluated in rats and RBL-2H3 mast cells. In the passive cutaneous anaphylaxis reaction in rats, a single oral treatment of JBE (1000 mg/kg) was found to suppress the reaction. In IgE-sensitized RBL-2H3 cells, JBE (10-100 microgram/mL) inhibited beta-hexosaminidase release, leukotriene C4/D4/E4 synthesis, and TNF-alpha production. Moreover, a high concentration of JBE (1000 microgram/mL) suppressed smooth muscle constriction induced by histamine (10 micromolar) and leukotriene D4 (10 nM) in a guinea pig trachea strip. The search for components in JBE with an inhibitory activity on mast cell degranulation was guided by inhibition of beta-hexsosaminidase release. Two eremophilane-type sesquiterpenes, six polyphenolic compounds, and two triterpene glycosides were isolated. Of these compounds, fukinolic acid, a principal polyphenol constituent, showed potent inhibitory activity (IC50 value = 2.1 microgram/mL). Consequently, On the basis of its inhibition of mast cell activation and direct smooth muscle reaction induced by released mediators, JBE was found to suppress the type I allergic reaction.