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Anti-inflammatory effects of Lactobacillus johnsonii L531 in a pig model of Salmonella Infantis infection involves modulation of CCR6+ T cell responses and ER stress

Yang, Gui-Yan, Xia, Bing, Su, Jin-Hui, He, Ting, Liu, Xiao, Guo, Liang, Zhang, Shuai, Zhu, Yao-Hong, Wang, Jiu-Feng
Veterinary research 2020 v.51 no.1 pp. 26
Lactobacillus johnsonii, Salmonella Infantis, T-lymphocytes, animal models, anti-inflammatory activity, bacteria, colon, diarrhea, endoplasmic reticulum, homeostasis, ileum, inflammation, jejunum, lymph nodes, piglets, probiotics, salmonellosis, villi
Probiotic pretreatment is an effective non-antibiotic strategy for preventing or controlling Salmonella infections. We found that Lactobacillus johnsonii L531, isolated from the colon of a clinically healthy weaned piglet, effectively prevented infection with Salmonella enterica serovar Infantis in a pig model. Newly weaned piglets were intragastrically administered Lactobacillus johnsonii L531 at 1.0 × 10¹⁰ CFU/day for 1 week before S. Infantis challenge. Pretreatment with L. johnsonii L531 lessened the severity of diarrhea and ileal inflammation in S. Infantis–infected piglets. Lactobacilli were more abundant in the ileum than jejunum after L. johnsonii L531 pretreatment. Treatment with L. johnsonii L531 reduced the abundance of total bacteria in the ileal mucosa and the production of lipocalin 2 in the jejunum of piglets challenged with Salmonella. Both intestinal morphology and transmission electron microscopy results indicated that L. johnsonii L531 alleviated intestinal tissue damage following S. Infantis challenge, especially in the villus and endoplasmic reticulum (ER). ER stress induced by S. Infantis was attenuated by L. johnsonii L531 treatment. The number of CD4⁻ CCR6⁺ T cells decreased following S. Infantis challenge, but the percentage of CCR6⁻ IFNγ⁺ T cells in peripheral blood increased. In intestinal mesenteric lymph nodes, S. Infantis increased the proportion of CCR6⁺ IFNγ⁺ T cells, whereas L. johnsonii L531 induced an increase in the proportion of CD4⁺ CCR6⁺ T cells in response to S. Infantis infection. Our data thus suggest that L. johnsonii L531 contributes to the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis by modulating T-cell responses and ER stress.