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Reduction of Botrytis cinerea Colonization of and Sporulation on Bunch Trash
- Fedele, Giorgia, González-Domínguez, Elisa, Si Ammour, Melissa, Languasco, Luca, Rossi, Vittorio
- Plant disease 2020 v.104 no.3 pp. 808-816
- Botrytis cinerea, DNA, Trichoderma atroviride, Vitis, biological control agents, conidia, eugenol, flowering, fludioxonil, geraniol, laboratory experimentation, pullulan, ripening, risk, saprophytes, sporulation, thymol, vineyards
- Botrytis bunch rot (BBR) of grapevine, caused by Botrytis cinerea, is commonly managed by fungicide (FUN) sprays at flowering (A), at prebunch closure (B), at veraison (C), and before harvest. Applications at A, B, and C are recommended to reduce B. cinerea colonization of bunch trash and the production of conidia during berry ripening. The effects of these applications were previously evaluated as reductions in BBR severity at harvest rather than as reductions in bunch trash colonization and sporulation by B. cinerea. This study investigated the effects of FUNs (a commercial mixture of fludioxonil and cyprodonil), biological control agents (BCAs; Aureobasium pullulans and Trichoderma atroviride), and botanicals (BOTs; a commercial mixture of eugenol, geraniol, and thymol) applied at different timings (A, B, C, or ABC) compared with a nontreated control (NT) on B. cinerea bunch trash colonization and sporulation in vineyards. The ability of B. cinerea to colonize the bunch trash (as indicated by B. cinerea DNA content) and sporulate (as indicated by the number of conidia produced under optimal laboratory conditions) was highly variable, and this variability was higher between years (2015 to 2018) than among the three vineyards and three sampling times (i.e., 1 week after applications at A, B, and C). B. cinerea sporulation on bunch trash was significantly lower in plots treated with FUN than in NT in only 3 of 18 cases (3 vineyards × 2 years × 3 sampling times). FUN applications, however, significantly reduced B. cinerea colonization of bunch trash compared with NT; for colonization, BCA efficacy was similar to that of FUN, but BOT efficacy was variable. For all products, colonization reduction was the same with application at A versus ABC, meaning that the effect of an early season application lasted from flowering to 1 week after veraison. These results indicate that the early season control of B. cinerea is important to reduce the saprophytic colonization of bunch trash, especially when the risk of BBR is high.