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Composition of clay minerals and their pedogenetic and taxonomic implications for Stagnic Anthrosols derived from different parent materials in Hunan Province, China

Yu, Zhan, Zhang, Yangzhu, Sheng, Hao, Zhang, Liang, Zhou, Qing, Yan, Xiong
Journal of soils and sediments 2020 v.20 no.3 pp. 1558-1570
Anthrosols, clay, granite, illite, kaolinite, limestone, pH, shale, smectite, soil taxonomy, taxonomy, vermiculite, China
PURPOSE: The aims of this study were to investigate the composition of clay minerals in soils derived from different parent materials and to elucidate how parent materials and pedogenic environment affect the distribution of clay minerals and reveal the implications for pedogenetics and taxonomy in Stagnic Anthrosols. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Clay mineralogy and physicochemical properties of the Hydragric horizon of Stagnic Anthrosols derived from granite (GR), plate shale (PS), quaternary red clays (QRC), limestone (LS), purple sandy shale (PSS) and fluvial-lacustrine deposit (FLD) located in Hunan Province of China were analysed to explore the relationships between the conditions influencing the formation of the soil and the composition of clay minerals. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Results indicated that the composition of clay minerals is closely related to both parent material and type of Stagnic Anthrosols: the soils derived from GR, PS and QRC, which are mostly classified as Fe-accumulic-Stagnic Anthrosols, are dominantly 1:1 type kaolinite and vermiculite and illite/vermiculite mixed layer minerals of widespread distribution. However, soils derived from LS, PSS and FLD were mainly classified as Hapli-Stagnic Anthrosols and are mainly composed of 2:1 type illite/smectite mixed layer minerals, where chlorite is commonly found. Illite is widely distributed and its content varies the least among different parent materials. An extremely significant relationship between pH and kaolinite, chlorite and mixed layer minerals was noted, and the two kinds of mixed layer minerals showed highly significant negative correlation. CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed that the types and quantities of clay minerals in the soil are closely related to the types of parent material. This reflected better direction and degree of development in Stagnic Anthrosols, which is related to the physicochemical properties of parent material and can be used as one of the bases for the classification of soil groups and subgroups within the soil family for Stagnic Anthrosols in Chinese Soil Taxonomy.