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D-Aspartate oxidase: distribution, functions, properties, and biotechnological applications

Takahashi, Shouji
Applied microbiology and biotechnology 2020 v.104 no.7 pp. 2883-2895
D-aspartate oxidase, aspartic acid, bacteria, bioengineering, enantioselectivity, foods, glutamic acid
Recently, substantial levels of acidic D-amino acids, such as D-aspartate and D-glutamate, have been identified in many organisms, from bacteria to mammals, suggesting that acidic D-amino acids have multiple physiological significances. Although acidic D-amino acids found in animals primarily originate from foodstuffs and/or bacteria, the D-aspartate-synthesizing enzyme aspartate racemase is identified in various animals. In eukaryotic organisms, acidic D-amino acids are primarily degraded by the flavoenzyme D-aspartate oxidase (DDO). DDO is found in multiple eukaryotic organisms and may play important roles in acidic D-amino acid utilization, elimination, and intracellular level regulation. Moreover, owing to its perfect enantioselectivity and stereoselectivity, DDO may be a valuable tool in several biotechnological applications, including the identification and quantification of acidic D-amino acids. In this mini-review, previous DDO reports are summarized and the potential bioengineering and biotechnological applications of DDO are discussed. Key Points ・Occurrence and distribution ofd-aspartate oxidase. ・Fundamental properties of d -aspartate oxidase of various eukaryotic organisms. ・Biotechnological applications and potential engineering ofd-aspartate oxidase.