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Fabrication of biopolymer polyhydroxyalkanoate/chitosan and 2D molybdenum disulfide–doped scaffolds for antibacterial and biomedical applications

Mukheem, Abdul, Shahabuddin, Syed, Akbar, Noor, Anwar, Ayaz, Sarih, Norazilawati Muhamad, Sudesh, Kumar, Khan, Naveed Ahmed, Sridewi, Nanthini
Applied microbiology and biotechnology 2020 v.104 no.7 pp. 3121-3131
Escherichia coli, acute course, antibacterial properties, antibiotic resistance, bacteria, bacterial infections, biocompatibility, cell lines, chitosan, chronic diseases, cytotoxicity, drugs, humans, keratinocytes, methicillin, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, molybdenum, molybdenum disulfide, multiple drug resistance, nanocomposites, nanoparticles, pathogens, polyhydroxyalkanoates, virulent strains
Antibiotic resistance in pathogenic bacteria is a major health challenge, as Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) has recognized that the past simply drugs susceptible pathogens are now the most dangerous pathogens due to their nonstop growing resistance towards conventional antibiotics. Therefore, due to the emergence of multi-drug resistance, the bacterial infections have become a serious global problem. Acute infections feasibly develop into chronic infections because of many factors; one of them is the failure of effectiveness of antibiotics against superbugs. Modern research of two-dimensional nanoparticles and biopolymers are of great interest to attain the intricate bactericidal activity. In this study, we fabricated an antibacterial nanocomposite consisting of representative two-dimensional molybdenum disulfide (2D MoS₂) nanoparticles. Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) and chitosan (Ch) are used to encapsulate MoS₂ nanoparticles into their matrix. This study reports the in vitro antibacterial activity and host cytotoxicity of novel PHA-Ch/MoS₂ nanocomposites. PHA-Ch/MoS₂ nanocomposites were subjected to time-dependent antibacterial assays at various doses to examine their antibacterial activity against multi-drug-resistant Escherichia coli K1 (Malaysian Type Culture Collection 710859) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) (Malaysian Type Culture Collection 381123). Furthermore, the cytotoxicity of nanocomposites was examined against spontaneously immortalized human keratinocyte (HaCaT) cell lines. The results indicated significant antibacterial activity (p value < 0.05) against E. coli K1 and MRSA. In addition, PHA-Ch/MoS₂ showed significant host cytocompatibility (p < 0.05) against HaCaT cells. The fabricated PHA-Ch/MoS₂ nanocomposites have demonstrated effective antibacterial activity against both Gram-positive and -negative bacteria and exhibited better biocompatibility. Finally, PHA-Ch/MoS₂ nanocomposites are shown to be suitable for antibacterial applications and also hold potential for further biomedical studies. Graphical Abstract