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Oral vaccination using Artemia coated with recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing cyprinid herpesvirus-3 envelope antigen induces protective immunity in common carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian) larvae

Ma, Yanping, Liu, Zhenxing, Hao, Le, Wu, Jing, Qin, Baotian, Liang, Zhiling, Ma, Jiangyao, Ke, Hao, Yang, Hongwei, Li, Yugu, Cao, Junming
Research in veterinary science 2020 v.130 pp. 184-192
Artemia, Cyprinid herpesvirus 3, Cyprinus carpio, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, adults, antibodies, antigens, bioencapsulation, edible vaccines, etiological agents, financial economics, fish diseases, fish larvae, fish production, fluorescence, genes, hindgut, immune response, immunoglobulin M, interleukin-1beta, koi, lysozyme, oral vaccination, yeasts
Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) is the etiological agent of koi herpersvirus disease (KHVD), which causes serious economic losses in global common carp and ornamental koi carp production of larvae as well as adult type fish. To control KHVD, vaccines against CyHV-3 utilizing different immunization routes have been developed, among them, oral vaccination is the most desirable method to prevent fish diseases occurring at the early larval stage. Here, we developed an oral subunit vaccine through the Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell surface display of CyHV-3 envelope protein pORF65, then, the recombinant yeast fed to Artemia which served as bio-encapsulation vector by subsequently feeding the common carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian) larvae. The fluorescent observation showed that the Artemia and S. cerevisiae could deliver intact antigen to the hindgut of carp larvae suggesting the possibility of the vector for oral immunization. On this basis, after three immunizations at a week interval, the oral vaccine induced high level of specific anti-pORF65 antibody. Meanwhile, a significant difference of immune-related genes expression occurred including cxca, IL-1β, IFN-a1, lysozyme, IgM and CD8α between vaccined group and blank control group. In addition, 30% of relative percent survival of carp larvae after immunization was obtained post the animal infection assay, offered an certain immune protection. Our results indicated that the oral pORF65 subunit vaccine bioencapsulated in Artemia induced the activation of immune response and high level of antibodies, which could be served as an oral vaccine candidate for the prevention of CyHV-3 infection.