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Experimental cake‐baking method applicable to nonchlorinated flour

Byung‐Kee Baik, Thomas Donelson
Cereal chemistry 2020 v.97 no.2 pp. 394-403
baking quality, cakemaking, cakes, chlorination, sugars, wheat flour
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Approved Method 10‐90.01, Baking Quality of Cake Flour, requires flour chlorination, which poses safety concerns and is inconvenient. The effects of shortening, sugar, and water proportions on the quality of nonchlorinated flour cakes were determined in order to modify the Approved Method and make it applicable to nonchlorinated flour. FINDINGS: The reduction of shortening and sugar proportions to 35% and 130% (flour weight basis (fwb)), respectively, increased the center height, center‐to‐edge height (C/E) ratio, and volume of nonchlorinated flour cakes. Nonchlorinated flour cakes baked with 35% shortening (fwb), 130% sugar (fwb), and a fixed 120% (fwb) or optimum water proportion were similar in center height to, and greater in volume than, the chlorinated flour cakes baked according to the Approved Method. The volumes of nonchlorinated flour cakes baked with the modified formula showed significant correlations (p < .05) with those of the corresponding chlorinated flour cakes baked according to the Approved Method. CONCLUSIONS: The Approved Method with modifications of the formula to 35% shortening, 130% sugar, and a fixed water proportion of 120% has the potential to be an effective cake‐baking test applicable to nonchlorinated wheat flour. SIGNIFICANCE AND NOVELTY: With no need for chlorination, the modified cake‐baking test delivers improved efficiency in the evaluation of wheat flour quality for making cakes.