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Utilization of nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt.) seed hydrodistillation time to produce essential oil fractions with varied compositions and pharmacological effects

Ibrahim Mohamed A., Cantrell Charles L., Jeliazkova Ekaterina A., Astatkie Tess, Zheljazkov Valtcho D.
Industrial crops and products 2020 v.25 no.3 pp. 565
Myristica fragrans, Plasmodium falciparum, antifungal properties, antimalarials, camphene, carene, chemical composition, essential oils, hydrodistillation, industry, limonene, models, myrcene, nutmeg, p-cymene, sabinene, seed oils, terpinolene
The intent of this study was to utilize distillation timeframes (DT) of nutmeg (Myristica fragrans) essential oil (EO) to generate fractions with differential chemical compositions and bioactivity. Ten fractions were captured at the following distillation timeframes (DT); 0.0-0.5, 0.5-1.0, 1.0-2.5, 2.5-5.0, 5.0-10, 10-30, 30-60, 60-90, 90-120, and 120-240 min. In addition, a control EO was collected from a straight 0-240 min non-stop distillation. Anova and advanced regression modeling revealed that the produced EO fractions possess substantial variation in the concentration of potentially desired compounds. The concentrations (%) of a-phellandrene, 3-carene, p-cymene, limonene, a-thujene, a-pinene, camphene, sabinene, ß-pinene, and myrcene decreased, while the concentrations (%) of a-terpinene, y-terpinene, terpinolene, and myristicin increased in later DT fractions. Nutmeg EO showed some antimalarial activity against Plasmodium falciparum D6, but did not exhibit significant antifungal activity. In general, nutmeg seed oil yields increased with an increase of DT. These results may be utilized by industries using nutmeg EO.