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Characterization of human mitochondrial PDSS and COQ proteins and their roles in maintaining coenzyme Q10 levels and each other's stability

Yen, Hsiu-Chuan, Yeh, Wen-Yu, Lee, Szu-Hsien, Feng, Yu-Hsiu, Yang, Si-Ling
Biochimica et biophysica acta 2020 v.1861 no.7 pp. 148192
antibodies, biosynthesis, coenzyme Q10, cybrids, genes, humans, mitochondria, mitochondrial DNA, mutation, proteins
Mutations of many PDSS and COQ genes are associated with primary coenzyme Q₁₀ (CoQ₁₀) deficiency, whereas mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations might cause secondary CoQ₁₀ deficiency. Previously, we found that COQ5 and COQ9 proteins are present in different protein complexes in the mitochondria in human 143B cells and demonstrated that COQ5 and COQ9 knockdown suppresses CoQ₁₀ levels. In the present study, we characterized other PDSS and COQ proteins and examined possible crosstalk among various PDSS and COQ proteins. Specific antibodies and mitochondrial localization of mature proteins for these proteins, except PDSS1 and COQ2, were identified. Multiple isoforms of PDSS2 and COQ3 were observed. Moreover, PDSS1, PDSS2, and COQ3 played more important roles in maintaining the stability of the other proteins. Protein complexes containing PDSS2, COQ3, COQ4, COQ6, or COQ7 protein in the mitochondria were detected. Two distinct PDSS2-containing protein complexes could be identified. Transient knockdown of these genes, except COQ6 and COQ8, decreased CoQ₁₀ levels, but only COQ7 knockdown hampered mitochondrial respiration and caused increased ubiquinol:ubiquinone ratios and accumulation of a putative biosynthetic intermediate with reversible redox property as CoQ₁₀. Furthermore, suppressed levels of PDSS2 and various COQ proteins (except COQ3 and COQ8A) were found in cybrids containing the pathogenic mtDNA A8344G mutation or in FCCP-treated 143B cells, which was similar to our previous findings for COQ5. These novel findings may prompt the elucidation of the putative CoQ synthome in human cells and the understanding of these PDSS and COQ protein under physiological and pathological conditions.