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Reduced toxicity of 3-epi-deoxynivalenol and de-epoxy-deoxynivalenol through deoxynivalenol bacterial biotransformation: In vivo analysis in piglets

Bracarense, Ana Paula F.L., Pierron, Alix, Pinton, Philippe, Gerez, Juliana R., Schatzmayr, Gerd, Moll, Wulf-Dieter, Zhou, Ting, Oswald, Isabelle P.
Food and chemical toxicology 2020 v.140 pp. 111241
adverse effects, biotransformation, cadherins, cytokines, deoxynivalenol, diet, dietary exposure, grains, hematologic tests, histology, immunoglobulin A, immunoglobulin G, immunoglobulin M, intestines, liver, lymphatic system, occludins, piglets, swine feeding, tissues, toxicity
Ingestion of deoxynivalenol (DON), one of the most common mycotoxin contaminants of cereals, leads to adverse effects for animal and human health. Bacterial biotransformation is a strategy to mitigate the toxicity of this mycotoxin. The present study aims to evaluate the toxicity of two bacterial biotranformation products of DON: 3-epi-deoxynivalenol (3-epi-DON) and de-epoxy-deoxynivalenol (DOM-1) through zootechnical, hematological, histological and immunological assays. Twenty-four 4-weeks-old piglets received a control diet or a diet contaminated with 3 mg kg⁻¹ DON, DOM-1, or 3-epi-DON for 7 days. Sample tissues were collected for histomorphometrical analysis, expression of cytokines and cell protein junctions. The zootechnical and hematological parameters were not modulated by any treatment. Ingestion of DON induced histological alterations in the intestine, liver and lymphoid organs, as well as an overexpression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, E-cadherin and occludin. These changes were not observed in piglets receiving the DOM-1 and 3-epi-DON contaminated diets. Pigs fed 3-epi-DON contaminated diet showed an increase in IgM levels in comparison with other diets, while no change was observed in IgA and IgG levels among the diets. Our results indicate that DOM-1 and 3-epi-DON are not toxic for piglets; thus bacterial biotransformation seems to be a sustainable alternative to reduce mycotoxin toxicity.