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Field survey study on the difference in Cd accumulation capacity of rice and wheat in rice-wheat rotation area

Yang, Jiang-li, Cang, Long, Wang, Xia, Xu, Hong-ting, Zhou, Dong-mei
Journal of soils and sediments 2020 v.20 no.4 pp. 2082-2092
alkaline soils, bioaccumulation factor, cadmium, crop rotation, food safety, food security, pollution, regression analysis, rice, rice soils, soil pH, soil physical properties, surveys, wheat, China
PURPOSE: In the rice-wheat rotation area, Cd contamination affects food safety of rice and wheat. However, there have been conflicting results and different conclusions on the difference in Cd accumulation capacity of rice and wheat, and the factors that led to the difference were not clear. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A field survey study was conducted by collecting 60 soil and grain samples in pairs during rice and wheat harvest in 30 long-term rice-wheat rotation areas with clean and mild Cd contamination in Jiangsu Province, China. The soil physicochemical properties, total Cd, soil available Cd, and grain Cd were determined, and the factors affecting Cd accumulation in rice and wheat were analyzed. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: The soil pH during wheat season (22 sampling points) was slightly higher than that during rice season; thus, soil available Cd in wheat was generally lower (with an average three times lower) than that in rice soil. The mean Cd content in rice grain was only half of that in wheat grain, and the Cd concentration in rice and bioconcentration factor of rice at 26 sampling points (86.7% of total samples) were lower than those of wheat, indicating that Cd accumulation capacity of wheat was stronger than that of rice. Pearson correlation coefficient and multivariate linear regression models revealed that the main factors affecting the difference of Cd accumulation in rice and wheat were soil pH and available Cd content in soil. CONCLUSIONS: The Cd accumulation capacity of wheat was higher than that of rice, especially in neutral and alkaline soil, and the Cd contents in rice and wheat grain depended on the soil pH and available Cd content. The food security risk of wheat was more noteworthy than rice in rice-wheat rotation area.