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Proteome analysis of leaf, stem and callus in Viscum album and identification of lectins and viscotoxins with bioactive properties

Tsekouras, Vasileios, Mavrikou, Sophie, Vlachakis, Dimitrios, Makridakis, Manousos, Stroggilos, Rafael, Zoidakis, Jerome, Termentzi, Aikaterini, Moschopoulou, Georgia, Kintzios, Spyridon
Plant cell, tissue, and organ culture 2020 v.141 no.1 pp. 167-178
Viscum album, antineoplastic activity, biopharmaceuticals, biosynthesis, callus, callus culture, callus formation, chitin, computer simulation, computer software, databases, explants, leaves, lectins, models, neoplasms, parasitic plants, phylogeny, protein content, protein isoforms, protein synthesis, proteome, sequence homology, somaclonal variation
Mistletoes are semiparasite plants containing pharmaceutical proteins with applications in cancer treatment. Previous research has demonstrated that somaclonal variation can lead to the biosynthesis of novel proteins from mistletoe callus cultures. The protein content of Viscum album subsp. abietis tissues and biotechnologically propagated calluses, was analyzed to identify proteins with putative anticancer properties. In addition, evolutionary relations among linked species to Viscum were studied. Calluses were propagated from stem explants. The protein extracts mass spectra were processed with Proteome Discoverer and a search was performed using as reference the Uniprot V. album reviewed database. A phylogenetic tree was reconstructed using the LG amino acid substitution model by homologous sequences for Beta galactoside-specific lectin 2. The homology modeling of the Beta-galactoside-specific lectin 2 was carried out using Modeller software. Considerable differences were observed by comparing the protein content of the calluses and the maternal tissues. Four mistletoe lectins, six viscotoxins and the chitin binding lectin-cbML were identified within the species tissues. An in silico phylogenetic and structural study provides insights to the role of these lectins and the mechanism of semiparasite survival and evolution, towards a novel anticancer and immune system modulation pipeline. Callogenesis exhibited protein biosynthesis alterations and novel protein isoforms expression. Phyllogenetic analysis revealed evolutionary relations primarily within the Viscum genus and other species containing 2-ribosome inactivating proteins. The homology modeling of the mistletoe lectin 2 revealed possible structure related anticancer properties. In conclusion, mistletoe calluses were shown to possess a unique protein biosynthetic profile compared to donor plant tissues.