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Inflammation in myocardial injury- Stem cells as potential immunomodulators for myocardial regeneration and restoration

Vadivel, Sajini, Vincent, Preethi, Sekaran, Saravanan, Visaga Ambi, Senthil, Muralidar, Shibi, Selvaraj, Vimalraj, Palaniappan, Balamurugan, Thirumalai, Diraviyam
Life sciences 2020 v.250 pp. 117582
clinical trials, embryonic stem cells, heart, heart failure, immunomodulators, induced pluripotent stem cells, inflammation, mesenchymal stromal cells, myocardial infarction, neutralization, therapeutics
The ineffective immunosuppressant's and targeted strategies to neutralize inflammatory mediators have worsened the scenario of heart failure and have opened many questions for debate. Stem cell therapy has proven to be a promising approach for treating heart following myocardial infarction (MI). Adult stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells and embryonic stem cells are possible cell types and have successfully shown to regenerate damaged myocardial tissue in pre-clinical and clinical studies. Current implications of using mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) owing to their immunomodulatory functions and paracrine effects could serve as an effective alternative treatment option for rejuvenating the heart post MI. The major setback associated with the use of MSCs is reduced cell retention, engraftment and decreased effectiveness. With a few reports on understanding the role of inflammation and its dual effects on the structure and function of heart, this review focuses on these missing insights and further exemplifies the role of MSCs as an alternative therapy in treating the pathological consequences in myocardial infarction (MI).